Tuesday, August 9

CKA Kubernetes Administrator exam info 2022

Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA)


     CKA Exam Model Paper 2022 V1.24

EXAM Cost = $395


Book exam using website: linuxfoundation.org


About This Certification:


CKA was created by The Linux Foundation and the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) as a part of their ongoing effort

to help develop the Kubernetes ecosystem. The exam is an online, proctored, performance-based test that requires solving multiple

tasks from a command line running Kubernetes.


Domains & Competencies:

Storage 10%


Understand storage classes, persistent volumes

Understand volume mode, access modes and reclaim policies for volumes

Understand persistent volume claims primitive

Know how to configure applications with persistent storage


Troubleshooting 30%


Evaluate cluster and node logging

Understand how to monitor applications

Manage container stdout & stderr logs

Troubleshoot application failure

Troubleshoot cluster component failure

Troubleshoot networking


Workloads & Scheduling 15%


Understand deployments and how to perform rolling update and rollbacks

Use ConfigMaps and Secrets to configure applications

Know how to scale applications

Understand the primitives used to create robust, self-healing, application deployments

Understand how resource limits can affect Pod scheduling

Awareness of manifest management and common templating tools


Cluster Architecture, Installation & Configuration 25%


Manage role based access control (RBAC)

Use Kubeadm to install a basic cluster

Manage a highly-available Kubernetes cluster

Provision underlying infrastructure to deploy a Kubernetes cluster

Perform a version upgrade on a Kubernetes cluster using Kubeadm

Implement etcd backup and restore


Services & Networking 20%


Understand host networking configuration on the cluster nodes

Understand connectivity between Pods

Understand ClusterIP, NodePort, LoadBalancer service types and endpoints

Know how to use Ingress controllers and Ingress resources

Know how to configure and use CoreDNS

Choose an appropriate container network interface plugin



Exam Details & Resources:


This exam is an online, proctored, performance-based test that requires solving multiple tasks from a command line running Kubernetes.

Candidates have 2 hours to complete the tasks.


Candidates who register for the Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA) exam will have 2 attempts (per exam registration) to an exam simulator.


The exams are delivered online and consist of performance-based tasks (problems) to be solved on the command line running Linux.

The exams consist of 15-20 performance-based tasks.

Candidates have 2 hours to complete the CKA exam.

The exams are proctored remotely via streaming audio, video, and screen sharing feeds.

Results will be emailed 24 hours from the time that the exam is completed.




Exam Technical Instructions:


Root privileges can be obtained by running 'sudo −i'.

You must NOT reboot the base node (hostname node-1). Rebooting the base node will NOT restart your exam environment.

Do not stop or tamper with the certerminal process as this will END YOUR EXAM SESSION.

Do not block incoming ports 8080/tcp, 4505/tcp and 4506/tcp. This includes firewall rules that are found within the distribution's default firewall configuration files as well as interactive firewall commands.


The Terminal (Terminal Emulator Application) is a Linux Terminal; to copy & paste within the Linux Terminal you need to use LINUX shortcuts:

Copy  = Ctrl+SHIFT+C (inside the terminal)

Paste = Ctrl+SHIFT+V (inside the terminal)

OR Use the Right Click Context Menu and select Copy or Paste



Friday, June 1

How to Change Time Zone in Linux RHEL/CentOS 6&7

Time Zone change is required Some times  when we move our Machines(VMs) from one location to another location.
You can easily change timezone in RHEL/CentOS using the following methods.
Check which time zone you are in by using date command.

[root@bsrtech ~]# date
Fri Jun  1 12:26:53 IST 2018

Actually My Machine(VM) is moved from India to US(Eastern Time)  Data Centre. Here i am showing change time zone from IST to EDT.

In Linux timezone data is taken from /etc/localtime which is linked to one of the file located in /usr/share/zoneinfo/*
Delete the current localtime file under /etc/ directory, before deleting backup the localtime file

[root@bsrtech ~]# cd /etc
[root@bsrtech ~]# cp /etc/localtime /etc/localtime_bkp_8MAR2018
[root@bsrtech ~]# rm localtime

All US timezones are located under the /usr/share/zoneinfo/US directory as shown below.

[root@bsrtech US]# ls
Alaska    Arizona  Eastern       Hawaii          Michigan  Pacific      Samoa
Aleutian  Central  East-Indiana  Indiana-Starke  Mountain  Pacific-New

Note: For other country timezones, browse the /usr/share/zoneinfo directory.

Link the Eastern file from the above US directory to the /etc/localtime directory as shown below.

[root@bsrtech US]# # ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/US/Eastern   /etc/localtime

Now the timezone on your Linux system is changed to US Eastern time as shown below.

[root@bsrtech ~]# date
Fri Jun  1 03:19:21 EDT 2018

Note: The date command can be used for both viewing and changing the date and time. Change the Time using date Command

Set Manual Time
[root@bsrtech ~]# date -s "01 JUNE 2018 02:34:00"
FRI June  1 02:34:00 EDT 2018

Friday, December 15

How to Generate a sosreport in RedHat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 6&7


             The sosreport command is a tool that collects configuration details, system information and diagnostic information from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. For instance: the running kernel version, loaded modules, and system and service configuration files. The command also runs external programs to collect further information, and stores this output in the resulting archive.

Note:  Sosreport is required when you have open a case with redhat for technical support. Redhat support Engineers will require sosreport of your server for troubleshooting purpose.

1.Install sosreport:

     Sos package is part of default installation in most of linux. If for any reason this package is no installed , then use below command to install SOS package :

        [root@bsrtech ~]# yum install sos

2. Generate sosreport:

It will ask for some information related to a support case. The script produces a .tar file. The location of the .tar file is given in the script output

In RHEL 6 Sosreport compressed file is saved under the folder  /tmp”
In RHEL 7 Sosreport compressed file is saved under the folder  /var/tmp”

[root@bsrtech ~]# sosreport

sosreport (version 3.4)

This command will collect diagnostic and configuration information from
this Red Hat Enterprise Linux system and installed applications.

An archive containing the collected information will be generated in
/var/tmp/sos.yuu3tH and may be provided to a Red Hat support

Any information provided to Red Hat will be treated in accordance with
the published support policies at:


The generated archive may contain data considered sensitive and its
content should be reviewed by the originating organization before being
passed to any third party.

No changes will be made to system configuration.

Press ENTER to continue, or CTRL-C to quit.

Please enter your first initial and last name [bsrtech.net]: abcreport
Please enter the case id that you are generating this report for []: 1234

Note: here “abcreport ” is first and last name, 1234 is case number.
 On completion, a compressed tarball will be created in /tmp,  along with a file containing the md5sum.
Setting up archive ...
 Setting up plugins ...
 Running plugins. Please wait ...

  Running 95/95: yum...              ...
Creating compressed archive...

Your sosreport has been generated and saved in:

The checksum is: 288f57beb808419da8690e9bbc5393ba

Please send this file to your support representative.

[root@bsrtech ~]#

3.Find the sosreport file:

[root@bsrtech ~]# cd /var/tmp/
[root@bsrtech tmp]# ls
 [root@bsrtech tmp]#

Friday, November 11

Linux Patching In Real Time Work Environment

Linux Patching In Real Time Work Environment

Take backup of all previoues Configuration, Like uptime ,date,version,FileSystem,LVM's,Memory info,network info,etc....
[root@bsrtech ~]# uptime; date >> /tmp/patch.date; date; cat /etc/redhat-release; uname -a; df -hPT; cat /etc/fstab; pvscan; lvscan; multipath -l; cat /proc/scsi/scsi; cat /etc/exports; lspci; free -g; ifconfig -a; cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0; netstat -rn;
(Note : In above command take all outputs in /tmp/patch.date file)
Check macros file in rpm directory
/etc/rpm/macros (Per-system customizations)
[root@bsrtech ~]# cat /etc/rpm/macros
%_repackage_all_erasures 1 //create if non-existent
Now Check yum.conf configuration file
[root@bsrtech ~]# cat /etc/yum.conf
tsflags=repackage ///this line should have in /etc/yum.conf
name=BSR Tech Hosting Reference System RHEL 6 64-bit
[root@bsrtech ~]#
Note: In above File " tsflags=repackage" is enabled and will be effective for every new update you install. You’ll notice a new action named “Repackage” before the usual “Updating” stage is shown.
Clean all reposotories
[root@bsrtech ~]# yum clean all
Before update the Server, Check for available updates
[root@bsrtech ~]# yum check-update
Now update the Server means Patching the given Server using "yum update" command
[root@bsrtech ~]# yum update -y
After Update reboot the Server for apply latest patches
[root@bsrtech ~]# shutdown -rf now (or) # init 6
Note :
Before reboot: comment external FileSystems (Dont commnet OS-related and NAS Files systems)
After Reboot: Uncoment External Filesystems

Thanks for reading our blog – Sharing knowledge to all.

Tuesday, April 28


                  CentOS 7.0  Released - Download CD/DVD ISO Image  

              CentOS 7.0 Installation - step by step with screen shots


17. Mail Server Configuration
18. Clustering in RHEL/CentOS

  Third Party Softwares Installation on Linux RHEL/CentOS :

1. How to install EPEL Repository on Linux RHEL/CentOS
2. Install and Enable RPMforge Repository on Linux RHEL/CentOS
3. Firefox 33.1.1 installation on Linux RHEL/CentOS 7&6
4. Install Opera 12.16 web browser in RHEL/CentOS
5. How to download flash videos on Linux RHEL/CentOS
6. How to Install Adobe reader and flash on Linux RHEL / CentOS
7. How to install VLC media player on Linux RHEL/CentOS root user
8. Handbrake video converter installation on linux RHEL/CentOS
9. Installation FFmpeg on Linux RHEL/CentOS
10. TeamViewer 9 installation in Linux RHEL/CentOS
11. How to install phpmyadmin in RHEL/CentOS
12. Installation Skype 4.2 On Linux RHEL/CentOS
13. Install JAVA on CentOS or RHEL
14. Install Java-Plugin for Firefox on Linux RHEL/CentOS
15. Install Apache tomcat 8.0.X on RHEL/CentOS
16. Install Wine 1.7.3 in RHEL/CentOS
17. Install Apache OpenOffice 4.0.0 on RHEL/CentOS
18. Install LibreOffice 4.1.1 On Linux RHEL/CentOS
19. SSHPASS Command Installation & Usage
20. Installing SSH2 (Secure Shell2) Extension for PHP on Redhat/CentOS
21. Install NetBeans IDE 8.0 for PHP in RHEL/CentOS 7&6

   Some Troubleshooting Tips on your Server:

        1. How to reset root password on RHEL/CentOS 7&6
        2. How to check ram and swap size on Linux RHEL/CentOS
        3. How to convert command mode to graphical mode Linux RHEL/CentOS
        4. How to change runlevel on Linux RHEL/CentOS
        5. How to Check/Repair Filesystem (Rescue Mode) on Linux RHEL/CentOS
        6. How to Check and Modify Linux Kernel Performance
        7. Check Running Services in Linux RHEL/CentOS
        8. Sendmail and sm-client services are very slow to start the Linux
        9. How to enable/disable IP Forwarding in Linux RHEL/CentOS

 Mysql Related Posts: 

1. How to Sett,Change& Reset mysql root password on Linux.
2. How to change time in mysql database on Linux.
3. How to connect MYSQL Database from remote machine in Linux command line.
4. How to Migrate Mysql Database from one Server to another server.
5. How to Backup and Restore MYSQL Database using mysqldump command.
6. How to increase max file import size in PhpMyAdmin.
7. PhpMyAdmin logs out after 1440 seconds - how to increase this time

:: Linux - Legends ::